Sprinkle irrigation uses a spray or jet created by expelling water from a nozzle. The spray is broken up into droplets and acts like a simulated rainfall of controlled frequency, intensity, duration, and droplet size. In sprinkle irrigation, soil application is not the method of conveying/distributing water to the field. Sprinkle systems are designed to apply water at rates that do not exceed the soil's rate of infiltration, in order to prevent surface runoff.
Sprinkle systems are often a practical alternative for sloped or shallow soils. The uniformity of application generally depends much more on sprinkler position and placement than the soil type. These systems are affected by wind and, depending on the size of droplets and the spray trajectory, uniform distribution may be limited. Additionally, when water applied by the sprinkler evaporates on a crop leaf, it may deposit salts that cause leaf scorch (Hillel, 1987).
Sprinkle systems have high initial costs and maintenance requirements. They also use high operating pressures, which is a large energy requirement. However, their ability to work on most types of soil makes them desirable in a number of situations.