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Direct potable reuse

The option of direct potable reuse is the most technically demanding and societally contentious. In direct potable reuse the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant is routed directly to the intake of a drinking-water treatment plant. Because of the seemingly closed-loop cycle this process achieves, it is often called ``toilet-to-tap'' (WRA, 2001). However, a number of issues prevent widespread adoption of this technology:

In summary, direct potable reuse is the most extreme case of water recycling, and is at present used only in water-critical situations. While toilet-to-tap systems do work in theory, and some pilot plants are presently being monitored, they are generally an option of last resort.


next up previous contents
Next: Direct Non-potable Reuse Up: Water Reuse Previous: Water Reuse   Contents
Andy Wingo 2001-12-10